Articles Posted in arbitration

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Judicial reference, unlike arbitration, works within the court system. A lawsuit is filed, and the judge appoints a referee to assist in the case, or decide it on their own. Parties can agree, in their contracts, that disputes are to be determined by a general judicial reference. This means the entire dispute is to be resolved by a referee. An advantage of judicial reference over other forms of dispute resolution (read ‘binding arbitration’) is that a referee’s decision is treated like a judge’s decision for purposes of appeal. On the other hand, an arbitrator’s decision cannot be appealed for errors of fact or law, as I have railed about several times in this blog. But as some parties found out in a 2011 decision, a judicial reference provision is not a guaranty that the dispute will be decided by a referee, and parties interested in reference should consult with a Sacramento business and real estate attorney as to what is possible. In this case the California Supreme Court concluded that a judge could decline to appoint a referee if there is a possibility of conflicting rulings on a common issue of law or fact.

Sacramento judicial reference attorney.jpgIn Tarrant Bell Property, LLC v. The Superior Court, 120 residents of a mobile home park in Alameda County sued the park owners complaining that they had not maintained the common areas of the park and subjected residents to substandard living conditions. Of those residents, 100 residents’ leases had a provision that provided that disputes were to be resolved, first, by arbitration, or should the arbitration provision be found to be unenforceable, by general judicial reference. Key here is that the remaining 20 residents, 17% of the total, had leases that did not require arbitration and reference.

The plaintiffs asked the judge to order arbitration or reference, the park owners opposed either. The trail court judge refused to order arbitration or reference. The opinion does not describe why the court denied arbitration, but focuses instead on denial of reference.

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Parties can provide in their contracts that any dispute be resolved by “general reference.” A general reference directs a referee to try all issues in the action. The hearing is conducted under the rules of evidence applicable to judicial proceedings. In a general reference, the referee prepares a statement of decision that stands as the decision of the court and is reviewable as if the court had rendered it. This results in a trial by a referee and not by a court or jury. “Judicial reference,” on the other hand, differs in that in that it involves sending a pending trial court action to a referee for hearing, determination and a report back to the court. The BIG DIFFERENCE between reference and arbitration is that a judgment obtained by reference can be appealed, but an arbitrator’s may not be appealed, regardless of how flawed it is. Sacramento real estate and business attorneys know that all the CAR forms have arbitration provisions, which are usually initialed by the parties without truly understanding them. I have railed before about how arbitrators are not held accountable for erroneous rulings.

The general referee’s statement of decision “stands as the decision of the court,” and once the statement of decision is final and filed by the referee, judgment must be entered thereon “in the same manner as if the action had been tried by the court.” After judgment is entered, the losing party may make post-trial motions for a new trial, and/or to vacate the judgment. The judgment entered on the general referee’s statement of decision may be appealed like any other judgment.

SACRAMENTO CONTRACT DISPUTE ATTORNEY.jpgIn a recent decision the court enforced a general reference provision that did not include an explicit waiver of a jury trial. In O’Donoghue v. Superior Court (Performing Arts LLC), a developer obtained a $20 million dollar construction loan for condos at 973 Market Street in San Francisco. Several individuals signed personal guarantees for the loan; the guaranty instrument had a general reference provision. Default occurred, a lawsuit filed, and the court enforced the reference, appointing a referee. The reference provision did not include a jury waiver; the guarantors appealed.

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I have written several times about the finality of Arbitration decisions, and haw they cannot be overturned even if the Arbitrator did not follow the law, or ignored the facts. Also discussed here has been the plight of the unlicensed contractor, and how he is not entitled to be paid, and has the give the money back, no matter how much work he did or how much he spent on the project. In both cases, parties should be sure to understand their situation, and may want to consult with a Sacramento and Yolo real estate and construction attorney. Both issues came together recently in a case were the arbitrator did not require the unlicensed contractor to disgorge his compensation. The court said the Arbitration Award was invalid.

arbitration award sacramento attorney.jpgIn Mouris Ahdout v. Majid Hekmatjah et.al., A Family Limited Partnership and Braum were the sole members and owners of a LLC. They formed the LLC to develop and sell a condominium project on property the had owned. The LLC Operating Agreement specified that the LLC would enter an agreement with BIDI (Braum Investment & Development, Inc.), general contractor, to execute contracts and purchase orders to develop the project. Braum, member of the LLC, owned BIDI. Braum was also designated the manager of the LLC. BIDI did not have a Class B Contractor’s License, required under California law to build a commercial building.

The LLC operating agreement also said that BIDI was not to get any fees for acting as general contractor. However, the profit-sharing allocations under the Operating Agreement gave Braum an additional 25 percent allocation, so BIDI was actually getting paid for acting as general contractor.

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California real estate transactions usually have provisions requiring that the parties arbitrate any dispute, rather than file a lawsuit. Sometimes they file suit anyway, and an opponent in the real estate contract dispute makes a motion to the court to order the parties to arbitrate, rather than litigate. The Code of Civil Procedure (1281.2) generally requires the court to order arbitration if there is a binding agreement to do so. However, there is an exception when:

“A party to the arbitration agreement is also a party to a pending court action or special proceeding with a third party, arising out of the same transaction or series of related transactions and there is a possibility of conflicting rulings on a common issue of law or fact.”

sacramento real estate arbitration.jpgQuestions of conflicting rulings are occasionally seen by Sacramento & Yolo real estate attorneys. Some defendants in a real estate lawsuit in Southern California were surprised recently when the court refused to compel arbitration. In Gohar Barsegian v. Kessler & Kessler, Barsegian was the buyer of a $3.7 million dollar property. A dispute arose, and the buyer sued her attorney and the seller. In a switch from the usual facts, The buyer’s contact with the attorney contained an arbitration provision; the seller was not a party to that agreement. Apparently there was not such a provision in the real estate contract. The complaint claimed that the seller recommended the attorney to the buyer, and that the seller and attorney had a longstanding relationship, and the attorney was secretly representing the seller as well as the buyer.

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Most California residential real estate contracts (such as the C.A.R. form) have an arbitration provision providing for optional binding arbitration. If the parties all initial it, it becomes a requirement of contract. In arbitration the parties agree to have a supposedly unbiased third person decide the dispute. Arbitrator’s errors and mistakes cannot be reviewed by a court, so the parties are stuck with it. In a recent decision concerning beach front property in Venice, California, a judge refused to force the buyer to arbitrate their claim.

real estate arbitration.jpg In Lindemann v. Hume, Lee was building a $3 million dollar residence and a trust was the buyer. The trust’s beneficiary, actor Nicholas Cage, moved into the house, and immediately had problems with water intrusion and flooding. Cage told his agent to sell the place. The got an offer, and gave the buyer a disclosure stating that there was a problem with the drainage that the builder was addressing. Cage’s people hired an engineer, who reported that there was no quick fix , and any owner would need to accept the risk associated with the drainage. The buyers backed out.

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I have written before about binding, erroneous arbitration awards and how arbitration awards are unappealable. I’ve also written about whether the trustee or the trustee is the party, the issue that disappointed a recent plaintiff. This plaintiff, Portico Management Group, entered a real estate purchase contract to buy an apartment building in Carmichael, CA owned by the trustees of the HC Trust and a partnership. One of the selling parties refused to sign the deed and closing documents, and the buyer sued, correctly naming the trustees of the trust as defendants.

trustee of trust.jpgThe purchase contract required arbitration, so the court ordered the case to arbitration. The arbitration resulted in an arbitration award of more than $1.6 million to the plaintiff. The arbitration award, however, was not against the trustees, but against the trust itself, and the partnership. The arbitrator found that the trustees “are not personally liable for their acts as trustees.” Anyone in such a situation should consult an experienced Sacramento and Carmichael real estate litigation attorney, because this is where the problem arose.

The plaintiff went back to court and got a judgment confirming the arbitration award and tried to collect against the trust. They got nowhere because a trust is not an entity and therefore could not hold title to any property; the judgment was unenforceable. The buyer then went back to court to amend the judgment, but failed. The court ruled that, though the arbitrator made a mistake, the arbitrator’s decision was not subject to review.

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A California court recently ruled that a Developer of a condominium project, who was sued for construction defects by the homeowner’s association, could not force the association into arbitration. Promenade at Playa Vista Homeowners Association v. Western Pacific Housing, Inc. Cal . Court of Appeal, Second District, No. B225086. This line of decisions may result in experienced Yolo and Sacramento Real Estate lawyers to advise developer clients to hold on to at least one unit in their projects.

In this case the CC&R’s (Covenants Conditions and Restrictions) contained a mandatory arbitration provision between the developers and the association or unit owners be submitted to binding arbitration. In any common interest development, the developer prepares the original CC&Rs, and usually requires arbitration. As is usually the case, here the developer’s goal was to sell the units. It had sold them all, and no longer owned an interest in the development. Eventually the Homeowners Association filed this lawsuit for construction defects related to the roofs, stucco, and many other problems.

The arbitration provision in the CC&Rs stated that it was governed by the Federal Arbitration Act, which covers contracts. The FAA was selected because it makes arbitration provisions irrevocable, and drastically limits the court’s ability to fix errors of the arbitrator.

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A condominium developer in Southern California got sued by the Association for construction defects. The developer filed a motion to compel arbitration under the provisions of the CC&Rs. The court said no!

Recorded CC&Rs are made binding in disputes between owners, or owners and the association, because of their shared interest in the common interest development. CC&Rs are equitable servitudes which bind the owners and association. CC&Rs are not a contract between the developer and the owners association. There was no opportunity for “actual notice and meaningful reflection.” The association springs into existence on the sale of the first lot of the project. Maybe there is an argument that there is a meeting of the minds between the developer & the first buyer; but the rest of the buyer have no choice but to accept the CC&Rs.

So rarely do we see courts refuse to enforce unbargained for arbitration provisions (such as here) that it is an event worth celebrating.

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Buyers bought a home in Southern California using the standard CAR purchase agreement, in which they initialed the requirement to arbitrate any disputes. Before they moved into the home, they learned it had extensive structural damage which was not disclosed. The buyers sued their broker, claiming that they knew about the damage. The brokers moved the lawsuit to arbitration, as the purchase Contract allowed them to do- big mistake for the broker.

The Arbitrator awarded the Buyer damages based on the benefit of the bargain” measure, which is applicable to damages not arising from a contract. The Brokers sought to set aside the award, claiming he should have used the “out of pocket” measure of damages (Civil Code 3343).

The Broker argued that the Arbitration provision requires the arbitrator to render an award in accordance with California substantive law; thus, this departs from the general rule of non-reviewability of arbitration awards. However, the court disagreed. Citing DirectTV, a provision requiring arbitrators to apply the law leaves open the possibility that they may apply it incorrectly.

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In a recent case a husband and wife sold property to plaintiffs, who sued for misrepresentation. (There was no indication in the court’s opinion whether they had used a C.A.R. contract and initialed the arbitration provision.) Both parties attorneys and the judge signed a stipulation and order for arbitration and appointment of a private arbitrator. No clients signed the stipulation.

Plaintiffs won, and brought the standard petition in court for confirmation of the arbitration award. Meanwhile, the defendant husband “Valere” fired his attorney and was representing himself; the wife was still represented by the attorney. Valere opposed the petition, claiming that he had never agreed to arbitrate the matter.

The trial court confirmed the award, and Valere appealed. The court of appeal reversed the judgment.